Indications: to facilitate independent bowel movements after operations and with persistent constipation.
Equipment: a pear-shaped spray can or a Janet syringe, a gas outlet tube, a mixture according to Ognev: 10% sodium chloride solution 20ml, glycerin-20ml, 3% hydrogen peroxide. latex gloves, liquid paraffin, tray, oilcloth, large diaper, container with a disinfectant solution.
1. Establish a trusting relationship with the patient.
. Ensure understanding of the purpose and course of the procedure.
. Collect the mixture according to Ognev into a pear-shaped spray can.
. To help the patient lie on his left side, the right leg should be bent at the knee and pressed to the stomach
. Wear a bathrobe and gloves.
. Place oilcloth, diaper under the patient.
. Lubricate the tip of the pear-shaped spray can with Vaseline oil.
. Release air and insert the tip of the pear-shaped balloon into the rectum, spreading the buttocks of the patient.
. Without opening the can, remove it from the rectum.
. Remind patient to retain solution in intestine for 15-20 minutes.
. Observe the patient's condition, if there is a urge to bring the vessel or escort to the toilet.
. Remove oilcloth, diaper in a container for subsequent disinfection.
. Remove gloves, place them in a container with a disinfectant solution, wash your hands.
. Make an entry in the appointment sheet about the procedure performed.
Fecal plug in the rectum
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The rectum is a section of the digestive tract that continues the colon, but has other tasks in the act of human digestion. In the rectum, stools accumulate and condense before going out. Emptying can occur 1-2 times a week in the form of hardened stools. Constipation can occur in people who, for some reason, excluded vegetables, fruits, sour-milk products from the diet. Mental and nervous disorders can lead to the fact that the intestine is filled with feces, and the process of emptying is absent. The intestines become clogged with feces, which hardened to form a cork.
Irregular emptying is a great risk of hardening in the gut.
- 1 What are fecal plugs?
- 2 causes
- 3 Symptoms
- 4 How to get rid of fecal plugs?
- 5 Enema
- 6 Traditional medicine
- 7 When should I see a doctor?
What are fecal plugs?
Compaction of formations in the gastrointestinal tract, which have an oval or rounded shape, is called fecal plug. The presence of traffic jams can be single or multiple. The constituents of fecal formations are pieces of food that are not digested, blood clots, feces, hair, undissolved drugs, plant fibers. Fecal stone sizes are from 100 ml to 300 ml and more, but too large dimensions of the formations in the rectum are rare.
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Causes of occurrence
Problems with the rectum in the form of fecal stones are common and mainly occur in chronic constipation. Fecal plug may be the result of a sedentary lifestyle. Hemorrhoids, cracks in the anus, typhoid fever, cholecystitis, kidney stones can contribute to the formation of intestinal formations. Fecal stone can occur when lowering the colon, as well as if the patient has difficulty promoting feces, which is associated with bowel deformation.
The cause for the occurrence of coprostasis can serve as chronic appendicitis, intestinal ulcer or its individual sections, nephrolithiasis, pregnancy. This disease is most often found in elderly people.
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Dense formations in the gastrointestinal tract have pronounced symptoms and manifest themselves in the following:
- lack of bowel movement for three or more days,
- pain in the abdomen
The stomach hurts initially with attacks, and only later acquires constancy. The patient can feel the cork in the abdominal cavity, it can be either empty or filled, depending on its location. An intestinal mass is diagnosed with an x-ray.
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How to get rid of fecal plugs?
Removal of fecal stones directly depends on the stage of the disease. In order for the therapy to be less painful, the patient should consult a doctor in time. If the stage of the disease is not neglected, the patient will manage with laxatives, with the help of which defecation will be carried out. But, despite the simplicity of the method, such treatment should occur in a hospital environment under the supervision of medical personnel.
The need for constant monitoring by doctors lies in their clear recommendations to help avoid relapse. In the presence of dense stone formations in the rectum, the patient will need a finger examination or surgery based on cork extraction.
Many patients resort to traditional medicine recipes, but alternative medicine is based on proper nutrition with an active lifestyle.
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Coprostasis can be treated with an enema, a solution for which you can prepare yourself. To do this, mix 3 tbsp. l freshly squeezed beet juice, 0.5 tsp. vinegar and 2 liters of decoction, which is prepared from knotweed, chamomile, linden and motherwort, the components should be taken one teaspoon each. The resulting solution should be filled in a special container for washing the intestines and carry out the appropriate procedure.
Another recipe for an enema will be a solution of magnesia, microclysters with olive, sunflower or other vegetable oil. One of the listed oils in a volume of 300 ml should be warmed up and used as intended. The doctor can prescribe the patient and Ognev microclyster, which is based on hydrogen peroxide, sodium chloride and glycerin. The ingredients should be taken 30 ml, 150 ml and 100 ml, respectively. Perform the procedure 2 times a day - in the morning and in the evening.
You can also get rid of coprostasis using candles based on glycerol. Pharmacy chains offer suppositories for both children and adults. With prolonged constipation and with heaviness in the intestines, with bad breath and bloating, the patient is prescribed to administer two suppositories not only in the evening before bedtime, but also in the morning.
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Recipes of traditional medicine include various means that allow you to get rid of fecal plugs. More effective and safer are:
- Cleansing measures that remove excess intestinal contents. To cleanse the body, they use a special strict diet, which allows you to eat only one orange for breakfast and dinner. The duration of treatment in this way reaches two weeks, the main thing is that the patient does not have an allergic reaction to citrus fruits and diseases that do not allow them to be consumed.
- Castor oil, which should be consumed before going to bed, one tablespoon each. Due to the laxative effect of castor oil, the patient will feel relief the very next morning after waking up.
- Vodka with oil is drunk for a month in the morning. To prepare this drink, mix one tablespoon of unrefined oil from sunflower seeds and vodka.
- Drinking warm liquid on an empty stomach in the morning (1 cup) and one tablespoon of vegetable oil before bedtime. During the day, you can eat 2-3 apples.
But in order to avoid the occurrence of traffic jams in the rectum, you should take care of your health in advance, for this you should reconsider the diet and lifestyle. Thus, the daily menu should include vegetables, fruits, first courses, wholemeal bread. Timely bowel movement will also be important, and with a difficult act of defecation, you should not hesitate and use laxatives.
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When should I see a doctor?
To avoid serious illnesses, each person needs to monitor their health, lifestyle and be careful about the accompanying symptoms that may indicate all kinds of diseases. The rectum, which undergoes the formation of fecal plugs in it, is no exception. Treatment of this ailment is possible at home with the help of drugs or folk remedies, but you should not self-medicate and it is better to consult a doctor. Especially, do not hesitate to visit a doctor if the patient cannot perform an act of defecation with the presence of urges and at the same time there are cramping pain in the abdomen.
14.3. Hypertensive enema
It is shown when the introduction of large volumes of fluid into the rectum is dangerous: low-formed anastomoses of the rectum and colon, seams on the distal colon, pronounced edema, cerebral edema.
It has a pronounced stimulating effect on the motility of the colon. Hypertensive enema is usually used for postoperative intestinal paresis.
Fig. 14.9. Rubber pear-shaped cylinders for enemas: 1 - with a soft tip, 2 - with a hard tip
As a result of the administration of hypertonic solutions into the rectum, a significant amount of fluid from the extracellular space and from the higher sections of the colon enters its lumen. This leads to irritation of the baro - and chemoreceptors in the wall of the rectum, the emergence of viscero-visceral reflexes, contributing to increased contractility of the colon.
For a hypertonic enema, a 10% solution of sodium chloride, 20-30% solution of magnesium or sodium sulfate are used. The volume of a hypertonic enema is 50-100 ml. The solution for hypertensive enema should be warmed up to 37-38 С. For its introduction, use a pear-shaped balloon or a Janet syringe (Fig. 14.9). A rubber tube 25-30 cm long with a side opening at the end is put on the balloon or syringe.
In the position on the left side or back, as with a cleansing enema, a tube - tip is inserted into the rectum to a depth of 15-20 cm. A balloon is attached to it and a hypertonic solution is injected into the intestinal lumen, after which the patient for 20-30 minutes. should refrain from bowel movements.
14.4. Oil enemas
In surgical practice are rarely used. Usually they are prescribed in therapeutic clinics for patients with chronic spastic constipation. The introduced oil first relaxes the colon, and then enhances its peristalsis. This happens due to the fact that under the influence of the intestinal flora, the oil is partially broken down and, resulting in this, fatty acids stimulate intestinal motility. In addition, the oil envelops the feces, facilitating their excretion.
Mostly use sunflower or liquid paraffin in a heated form (37-38 ° C) in an amount of 100-200 ml. Oil is administered in the same way as hypertonic solutions. An oil enema is usually given in the evening. After an enema for 20-30 minutes. the patient should lie on his left side to prevent leakage of oil from the intestine.
Bowel release occurs after 10-14 hours in the morning.
14.5. Fire Enema
A mixture of 20 ml of 10% sodium chloride, 20 ml of glycerol and 20 ml of 3% hydrogen peroxide is injected into the rectum with a pear-shaped balloon. The specified mixture irritates the mucous membrane of the rectum, reflexively enhancing peristalsis.
Hypertensive and oil enemas, an enema according to Ognev, subject to the technique of their implementation, do not cause complications.
Is an enema always effective?
The answer to this question lies in understanding how the method of mechanical cleaning of the intestine works and in which cases it is advisable to use it.
A few key points:
- Enema is effective against parasites only intestinal forms.
- Not all helminths parasitizing in the lower digestive tract are affected by this method.
- Not any composition introduced using this procedure will have a proper effect on an individual.
In addition, the enema helps to get rid of many parasites, cleanses the body of their metabolic products, toxins, toxins and deposits of feces.
Remember that the procedure, although easy to use, and is very effective for certain helminthiases, you must consult a doctor before using it. The specialist will tell you which enema to choose and how to make it without harm to health, and also determine the presence of contraindications.
Arguments for Enema
Pharmaceutical preparations are usually prescribed for the treatment of helminthiasis. Their action guarantees the elimination of parasites and promises quick results. But in addition to the maximum therapeutic effect, they have high toxicity, which is a significant minus in anthelmintic drug therapy.
The fight against parasites with the help of an enema, although it does not differ in speed effect, but still has a number of advantages:
- Emptying is facilitated with impaired intestinal motility.
- You can try the method on any helminths.
- For the procedure, special skills and medical knowledge are not required, and an enema in the soul can be applied without any outside help.
- Special formulations of enemas help to leave not only adults, but also their offspring.
- A wide variety of solutions used allows you to choose the best option, taking into account individual characteristics.
- Handy ingredients can be used to prepare the solution.
- Enema can be done to a patient of any age.
- It is possible to cleanse the intestines with an enema at home.
- The cleaning procedure has practically no contraindications, with some exceptions for severe pathologies.
- Compared to medicines, it does not require large financial expenses.
Sometimes, to improve the quality of traditional medication treatment, an enema is simply indispensable. It softens the stool in case of constipation, and significantly accelerates the evacuation of pathogenic organisms from the intestine along with metabolic products.
Varieties of enemas from worms
Most often, the fight against parasites is carried out by caustic or burning solutions administered with an enema. For example, with enterobiasis, the procedure with wormwood or garlic is most effective.
The most common means for the preparation of anthelmintic composition:
- Garlic. Grind 3 teeth and place in a liter container with water. The temperature of the liquid should be approximately 45 degrees. The solution should be infused until it drops to the 38 mark. In the use of worms for children, replace the water with milk. More often used is such an enema from pinworms. They do not tolerate the smell of garlic and quickly leave the body.
- Sagebrush. To prepare the solution, pour a quarter liter of boiling water 2 tsp. dry grass. Wrap the container and insist until the water cools down to 38 degrees. Then strain the liquid through a thick cloth. Wormwood enema is used in a warm form.
- Eucalyptus. Take 30 leaves of this tree and pour 1 liter of boiling water. Put on fire and simmer another 15 minutes. Then insist in a closed container for 2-3 hours. Immediately before using an eucalyptus enema, add a few drops of oil of the same plant to its composition.
To get rid of parasites, enemas can be used not only with a herbal solution.Alkaline, peroxide, and oxygen enemas from worms are widely used.
For this procedure, not only the correct composition that will be introduced into the intestine is important, but also the process itself. Before the event and after it is necessary to make a simple cleansing enema using ordinary water.
- Prepare an alkaline solution in advance. To do this, dilute 30 grams of baking soda in 800 ml of water. Heat the composition to about 40 degrees.
- Stock up in 2 portions of 2 liters of clean water with a temperature of just over 20 degrees.
- Start with a simple enema. Enter the water with Esmarch's mug and hold it in yourself as much as you can. Empty out.
- Next, apply a soda solution. Enter it in the same way and try to hold out for half an hour. After time, empty the intestines.
- Finally, repeat the procedure with clean water.
Remember, if you have unbearable pain when using a soda enema and too violent a reaction when emptying, cleaning should be stopped immediately. For a second procedure, the amount of soda must be reduced.
The standard scheme for a cleansing event with a soda enema involves its use every other day. The number of injections reaches 7 times. At this time, you must follow a light diet.
Enema Using Oxygen
The method is based on a change in the habitat of anaerobic parasites. Many worms cannot exist in the presence of oxygen, so the so-called inflatable enema is used to destroy them. For this procedure, a special apparatus is required that draws air in small but frequent portions (100 ml each).
The oxygen supply site depends on the location of the parasites. When it comes to ascariasis, the device’s rubber tube is inserted into the patient’s stomach according to the sounding principle. With enterobiasis, it is lowered directly into the intestine. Roundworms and pinworms cannot survive in airspace and die.
An oxygen enema from worms is prescribed a maximum of five times. But at the end of therapy, it is necessary to pass a control analysis for the worm eggs.
This method is named after its inventor, a famous Russian surgeon. This is a fairly aggressive way of cleansing the intestines from worms. For its conduct, a special mixture is prepared and introduced under the supervision of a specialist in the complete absence of contraindications.
- Hydrogen peroxide 3% - 200 ml.
- Anhydrous glycerin - 200 ml.
- Soap solution - 200 ml.
Hypertonic solution, when interacting with the contents of the intestine, releases free oxygen, which causes bloating. This process has a powerful effect on intestinal motility.
Enema with hydrogen peroxide has strict prescriptions and should not be performed in individuals with low strength intestinal walls or severe pathologies.
The right way to administer
There are several ways to introduce a therapeutic composition into the intestines to get rid of parasites. You can make an enema yourself or resort to the help of another person. Some procedures are easy to carry out at home, others are carried out only in a hospital.
Methods of administering the solution with an enema:
- Self-filling of the intestine with a conventional pear-shaped device.
- Using Esmarch's mug.
- With the help of special devices.
- The use of siphon devices.
In medical practice, there are many more diverse ways of carrying out procedures that cleanse the intestines. The most common fixtures are the first two points.
Purification with Esmarch's Mug
You can carry out this procedure yourself, but this will require some skill. First you need to make all the preparations, tune in and relax.
- Prepare all the fixtures included with the Esmarch mug and a special holder for it (tripod).
- Fill the rubber reservoir with the required volume of fluid. Connect the mug to the rubber tube, on the end of which there should be a special anal tip.
- Pressing lightly on the mug, let the air out of the system. As water begins to appear, install the clamp. Hang the tool on the tripod hook.
- The patient should lie on his left side, head to the opposite side of the tripod, legs bent at the knees and slightly pressed to the chest.
- With your left hand, push the upper buttock and insert the tip into the anus, pre-lubricating it with petroleum jelly. The movements should be rotational and smooth. The maximum penetration is 8-10 cm.
- Remove the clamp.
- Carefully make sure that the liquid from the cup does not leak out completely and that air does not enter the intestines. To do this, leave a little solution at the bottom of the tank.
- Next, the actions are performed in the reverse order. A clamp is placed, the tip is smoothly removed, the buttocks are shifted.
- The patient should keep the solution for the prescribed time, but not less than 15 minutes. To do this, squeeze the buttocks or ask a person to rest his feet on a vertical surface (wall).
After time, the patient should empty the intestines. Disassemble the mug, rinse, handle the tip with a 3% solution of chloramine, sterilize.
Esmarch's mug can be used only from adolescence. In a baby, the procedure can cause serious damage to the anus, in addition, the intestines in a child are not designed for a large amount of fluid.
Self-cleaning with a pear
To carry out this procedure, devices of different sizes are used. They are used in accordance with the age and volume of the solution that must be introduced into the intestine.
- Collect the solution into the pear, having previously released air from it.
- Lubricate the tip with Vaseline.
- Take a knee-elbow pose.
- Take the pear hand back, squeeze a little solution to remove air, insert the tip into the anus.
- Squeezing the pear completely, without releasing, remove it from the anus.
- Lie down not the left god and squeeze the buttocks.
After enema procedures, take a hygienic shower. If the injected composition caused irritation of the anus during emptying, apply a greasy cream.
Any mechanical effect has some limitations, especially if an aggressive solution affects the intestinal mucosa. Before using a cleansing procedure, be sure to consult your doctor.
Contraindications for cleansing enemas:
- Inflammation of the intestinal mucosa.
- Benign or malignant tumors.
- Pathologies accompanied by bleeding.
- Cracks in the anus.
- Prolapse of the rectum.
Medicinal decoctions used to cleanse the intestines and get rid of worms can cause an allergic reaction. At the first signs of malaise or a feeling of unbearable discomfort, the procedure must be stopped.
Enema by Fire
Indications: constipation, stimulation of an independent act of defecation in the postoperative period.
- The sequence of steps is the same as with laxative enemas.
- A mixture consisting of 20 ml of a 10% sodium chloride solution, 20 ml of glycerol and 20 ml of a 3% hydrogen peroxide solution is injected into the rectum.
- After the introduction of the mixture, the patient should lie for 10-15 minutes so that oil does not leak.
Contraindications: inflammatory processes in the anus, rectum and sigmoid colon.
Complications: with observance of the enema technique, no complications are noted.
Indications: the need for the introduction of drugs into the rectum, persistent vomiting, unconsciousness, etc.
- Before the enema put a cleansing enema.
- The drug substance is injected deep into the rectum using a rubber pear-shaped balloon with a long rubber tip lubricated with liquid paraffin. (As medicinal solutions for enveloping enemas, use 2-3 teaspoons of starch in 2-3 glasses of water, chamomile infusion, 0.1%, 0.2% protargol solutions, 0.5%, 1% tannin solutions, potassium permanganate solution 1: 4000).
- For the treatment of proctosigmoiditis, enemas with warm olive oil (30-50 ml), a solution of antipyrine (1.5%, 2.5% - 20 ml), collargol (0.25% - 30 ml) are used.
- For anesthesia, a solution of novocaine (0.75% - 20-30 ml), atropine sulfate (0.1% - 0.5-1 ml) are used.
Contraindications: rectal tumors, hemorrhoids in the phase of severe exacerbation.
Complications: subject to enema technique, there are no complications.